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Alex Superficial
Hong Kong Airlines
2015-12-13, 15:00
"Hi Mike, I believe the report you wrote is excellent. Please also me to extend my appreciation to AEA teachers for the great effort you have done. Once again, many thanks and good luck to all of you."
John
Cathay Pacific Airways / HAECO
2015-12-13, 14:23
"I passed the ICAO. The airline contacted me today. Thanks to you I can pass the ICAO test"
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Hong Kong Airlines
2015-12-13, 14:32
"Hi! Michael! I made it and I got ICAO level 5 in English"

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Test for safety - train for proficiency

AEA will help you develop genuine language proficiency in English.

Courses for all levels of aviation experience

Our courses are suitable for both ab initio and professional pilots, ATCs and engineers.

100% Native English Teachers with Aviation Experience

All of our teachers are suitably qualified and have relevant aviation experience, e.g. pilots, aircraft engineers and ATCs.

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Prepare for your ICAO test, learn aviation theory, hear student experiences and get hints and tips to improve your English.

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Interview advice: Get professional help preparing for your theory exams/interviews with experienced aviation professionals

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Get professional help preparing for your theory exams/interviews with AEA Native English Teachers, who are also experienced aviation professionals such as Senior Captains (CX), Second Officers (CX) and Air Traffic Controllers (Australia).

Each week theory workshops cover a range of topics at PPL/CPL level. There is no need to commit to a complete course, but AEA students enrolled on Aviation English courses can attend at a discounted rate. External students are welcome to attend at the standard price.

Visit http://aviationenglish.com/ for more details and to join our mailing list. Telephone +852 8179 9295 to talk to us before attending.

English learning strategies for pilots and air traffic controllers

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English learning advice from Aviation English Asia. Article written by Michae Egerton.

This article is about developing strategies to optimise the English learning process. As a pilot or ATC your time is valuable so you will want to learn English in the most efficient manner possible.

There are hundreds of language schools offering English courses, and the market is very competitive. It is important to realise that there are no "magic pills" or secret learning methods that will help you climb an ICAO level overnight. A lot of English schools will over-emphasise the benefits of a particular learning method, but this is usually just part of their sales technique.

Learning a language is a complex process and there is a lot about language learning that humans don't yet fully understand. If a language school does claim miraculous progress due to their learning method you should be suspicious. However, most linguistic experts will agree on some principles.

 

When choosing a language school you should also ensure that all teachers should have an externally assessed teaching qualification, such as CELTA or Trinity Cert TESOL and be aware of communicative language teaching methods. If you are learning English for ICAO compliance, you should also find out if the teachers have experience within an aviation environment or access to an SME (Subject Matter Expert).

Developing good learning strategies will make your language learning more effective. In the last article I described some techniques that will help you improve your English learning. Now I'll provide some advice specific to pilots and air traffic controllers.

 

1.  Remove limiting beliefs about learning English

Attitude and motivation are very important to learning a language, as is an open mind. Particularly consider limiting beliefs about age affecting ability to learn a language. There are a number of views regarding this, though factors such as time, effort and opportunity are likely to be more significant than age. Research show that adults actually have better language learning strategies than children - the advantage that children and adolescents have is that they have a lot more opportunities and time to learn a language. There is some evidence to support the belief that our ability to acquire a native accent declines after adolescence but our ability to learn a language does not. As a pilot or controller you don't currently need to achieve native proficiency so don't give your self unnecessary pressure.

2. Be realistic in your goals. The current standard of English proficiency for flight crew and controllers is ICAO Operational Level 4. The requirements do not require you to be a speaker of perfect English. Your goal should be to communicate safely and effectively during radiotelephony. You don't need to be able to communicate like a native speaker, although there are obvious advantages for achieving proficiency at higher levels. Most people learn English better when they are free from external stress and pressure, almost anyone can learn a language - it's just a matter of time and effort. A reputable aviation English school can give you feedback on how long it will take to achieve your goal.

3. Accept that learning English takes time. Be wary of English courses that promise quick results. Reliable, proven systems like ICAO Aviation English Online is designed to take 12 weeks for each ICAO half level, eg (ICAO level 3 lower is 12 weeks, ICAO level 3 upper is also typically 12 weeks in duration). Developing a strong foundation in English always involves a commitment of time and effort. Improving your ability in English involves more than memorising phrases and questions - you need to be able to comprehend and respond appropriately. You will also need to be able to explain non-routine situations that could potentially occur during flight operations, hence the need for specialised aviation English training. There are many factors influence the speed with which a language can be acquired so it is very difficult to say exactly how long it will take to reach ICAO level 4. ICAO Aviation English Online features an accurate placement test before starting a course and also tests and quizzes throughout each course unit so you can be sure that you start a course at the right level, and also ensure that you are really making progress. Always be aware of "magic pill" solutions - learning a language will take time and it's more likely to be several months between ICAO levels rather than weeks.

4. Start to improve your English as soon as possible. When planning on taking a course it's critical that you take a placement test before you start. This will give you an accurate idea of how long it will take, and also ensure that the course is neither too easy nor too difficult. If you have been given 12 months to reach ICAO level 4 you should start to improve your English as soon as possible, rather than in 6 months time. Find out your ICAO Aviation English level now. The more time you give yourself then the less pressure you will feel, and you are likely to enjoy your English classes more.

5. Choose an English course carefully There are many methods of learning a language, and no one has been proven to be the best. An English course shouldn't be just memorising words and vocabulary, and neither is focusing on grammar. An English course should be communicative and give you the opportunity to practice the language that you have learned in a realistic context. When choosing an English course you should ask about the qualifications and experience of the English teachers. For teaching English for aviation, teachers should have a practical teaching qualification, specifically an externally assessed qualification such as CELTA or Trinity Cert TESOL as a bare minimum requirement. These qualifications are well regarded and involve the teacher being assessed whilst teaching in a classroom, and also completing a significant amount of coursework about teaching practice. Be cautious of schools employing teachers that have online TEFL or TESL certificates which can be completed alone in hours, rather than the 4-6 weeks of observed practice required for a CELTA or TESOL. All teaching certificates are not the same. Also consider the qualifications of those teachers that oversee a course. Ideally this should be an MA in Applied Linguistics. Although you should not expect your English teacher to be an experienced commercial pilot, a school teaching aviation English should have access to a SME (Subject Matter Expert) to advise on technical matters. Some teachers may hold higher English teaching qualifications such as DELTA and Trinity Dip TESOL, which are usually obtained after 2-3 years teaching experience.

6. Focus on the skills you need. English for ICAO compliance requires effective speaking and listening and class time should focus on communicative activities that require interaction between people. Although reading and writing are important, these activities are best used outside the classroom as homework activities. Every second of classroom time is a valuable opportunity for you to practice speaking and listening - don't waste time on the skills that can be developed outside class. A good example of an out of classroom activity is reading books and magazines graded at an appropriate level. Reading is an excellent way to improve your vocabulary and you will also pick up a lot of grammatical structures naturally. There are a wide range of aviation themed books and magazines available. Let us know your recommendations on our Facebook page. There are also a lot of aviation websites, videos and forums online that offer text and rich multimedia that can help you develop your language skills.

7. Choose an aviation specific English course. An aviation focused English course is likely to be more interesting for you than a general English course. The course materials will be more relevant and can even reinforce knowledge that you will need for your career. Furthermore an aviation English course will be a better use of your valuable time because it is specifically concentrated on helping you develop the language skills that your needs for ICAO compliance. Your teachers will be very interested in aviation and keen to hear about your experiences too.

8. Be responsible for your own learning. No matter how good they are, you shouldn't rely on your teacher 100%. Your English teacher is just a guide, or a facilitator. You need to be active in your learning and take every opportunity that you can to practice English. Ask questions and be interested in people. Speak and think in English at every opportunity. Use the language that you learn in each lesson rather than letting your notes gather dust.

9. Don't be afraid to make mistakes Many English learners are perfectionists that try to get everything correct first time - the result - they lose their fluency. It's ok to make mistakes, your English teacher can't correct every mistake you make anyway. If they did then the class would be painful for the teacher. You will learn English faster when you are relaxed and less concerned with making mistakes. The same is true for pronunciation - it's strange that one of the best ways to improve your pronunciation and fluency is often... not to think about pronunciation and fluency.

10. Talk to your friends and colleagues in English Talking in English isn't just limited to the classroom or during radio communications. Take every opportunity to practice and interact in English with friends and colleagues. Invite them to study with Aviation English Asia and you can make learning English more enjoyable, and the skies safer.

For more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com If you haven’t already, please sign up to our newsletter using the course enquiry form on the right hand side. You can then receive updates and course information from Aviation English Asia as soon as they are available.

Expecting the unexpected - Can you communicate without phraseology?

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A focus on unusual and strange occurrences during flight operations

English learning advice from Aviation English Asia. Article written by Michael McBride. How would you communicate the following situation to the controller? [caption id="attachment_107" align="alignnone" width="300" caption="Copyright www.guzer.com"][/caption] In this article I'm going to explain the different components of Aviation English, and explain why English is important and essential for communication in unexpected situations.

Summary of Aviation English language

Aviation English (AE) is split into three key areas;

  • Phraseology,
  • Plain English and
  • General English.

All three areas work side by side to create language ‘moments’ in the sky and on the ground.  Phraseology is the scripted communication that every pilot and controller has been trained to use.  Plain English is a way to communicate simply without use of over-complex language. It may help to aid understanding and deliver the meaning of something and indeed save lives in certain situations.  General English is not a specific part of many Aviation English courses but it is integrated and assumed.  You need General English as the foundation before you add the building blocks to create your dream home. The main rule is that you cannot have one linguistic area without the other.  It is a fair assumption that some people discredit or rather devalue the use of ‘plain’ and General English in Aviation English, but the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) completely disagree.  ICAO state that pilots/controllers at level 4 standard can “handle successfully with relative ease the linguistic challenges presented by a complication or unexpected turn of events.”  After all, unforeseen events in the sky may not be as predictable as a holding pattern around London Heathrow. Phraseology will not get you out of every situation The official phraseology used by aviation personnel is highly specific and fine-tuned, it will form the basis of all flights, and is indeed a ‘special’ feature of Aviation English.  Phraseology is the result of decades of expert knowledge due to accidents, incidents and logic.  The framework needed to get from A to B safely.  However, it is not enough and you need Plain and General English to get you out of strange and unpredictable problems.  English is one of the most important aspects of ICAO level 4 and above language testing.  For example, what if there are animals loose in the aircraft?  What if there is a piece of luggage blocking the taxiway?  How would you explain this to a controller in English? Professional Aviation English training with Aviation English Asia will help you integrate all 3 aspects of Aviation English language.  This is done by training you to use a wide range of language skills to get you out of those ‘sticky situations’ when you need to explain an unusual situation.  The  ICAO level 4 requirements state, “(this person) can often paraphrase successfully when lacking in vocabulary for unexpected circumstances.”  This requirement means that you do not need to know every word in aviation or general English, but you do need to know how to get around not knowing certain vocabulary.

Advice on how to communicate in unusual situations

It is essential for any uncertain communication that you maintain a connection with the pilot or controller, “checking and maintaining exchanges in unexpected turn of events” (ICAO).  Aviation English training can help you to build solid communication strategies to solve these communication difficulties and ‘fly out of danger.’   In the classroom or online course you will get plenty of practice on using these language skills.  Relevant grammatical structures include include stock phrases such as:

  • [subject] is similar to…
  • [subject] is like…
  • [subject] looks like...
  • [subject] appears to be...
  • [subject] seems to be...

and stock phrases/expressions to help you describe unusual situations.  You will also be trained to create and change words to combine both simplicity and clarity in your exchange over the radio.  You cannot use a dictionary in your ICAO test and you cannot search for one in your cockpit!  A wide vocabulary is very important in aviation as you might be communicating with another non-native speaker that doesn't recognise the words that you used.  You will need to learn how to paraphrase so you can use alternative words. You will learn aviation-related words as part of your pilot/controller training and also in Aviation English training.  It is advisable to learn words in groups, such as technology, mechanical parts, weather related etc.  It is much easier for you to learn when you can see a pattern.  It is also good for your wider English knowledge to study word families – receive, reception, receiving…etc.  And it is a good additional communication strategy to find words with the same meaning, these are called ‘synonyms’, eg, fire, blaze, explosion etc.  Maybe you will remember one word more than others. For more practical study, try creating situations and imagine how you would communicate it.  For example, animals escaping into the terminal, damage to aircraft by animals.  Then think of the connected vocabulary – containers, cages, hinges...  What information is key when listening?  And if the person you are speaking to doesn't know what a “cage” is, how could you communicate this?

How would you communicate these problems?

  1. A lot of cargo + gate
  2. Animal + in terminal
  3. Rain + window

For feedback on your answers please email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Checklist

  • Phraseology is vital but is also not enough
  • Communication strategies
  • Structured learning of words, phrases etc

What to do next

For more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit aviationenglish.com

What level of English do I need to pass the ICAO English test?

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Aviation English Asia has a strong record in helping students succeed in aviation careers.  In this article we will explain the level of English proficiency needed to pass the ICAO English test. So, when it comes to Aviation English most people will tell you ICAO Level 4, but what does that really mean? In layman's terms, at ICAO Level 4 you should be able to listen to, read and discuss the main ideas, technical vocabulary and details in most professional material. At this level, you are able to participate in a more sophisticated or professional conversation regarding your specialized area of expertise. You can generally handle predictable and unexpected topics of communication. You need to show competence in 6 skills of the ICAO Language Proficiency Rating scale.

  • Pronunciation
  • Structure
  • Comprehension
  • Vocabulary
  • Fluency
  • Interaction

Let's examine what is required for each of those skills at ICAO Level 4: Pronunciation

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation but only sometimes interfere with ease of understanding.

This means that you have to speak in a way which is intelligible to the aeronautical community -  International English rather than British or American English.  It is acceptable that your pronunciation and accent are affected by your first language, eg Chinese and you are not expected to be a perfect speaker of English.  It is still expected that you will make some pronunciation errors, eg stressing the wrong part of the word or speaking in a broken rhythm but it's acceptable as long as it only sometimes interferes with understanding. Structure

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are used creatively and are usually well controlled. Errors may occur, particularly in unusual or unexpected circumstances, but rarely interfere with meaning.

Relevant grammatical structures are determined by language functions appropriate to the task.  This means that you need to be proficient in grammatical structures that are used in flight operations.  You should be able to express yourself with a variety of alternative structures and again, it is expected that you will make some grammatical errors.  This descriptor highlights that such errors could occur in non-routine situations, but the meaning is generally understood. Vocabulary

Vocabulary range and accuracy are usually sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work- related topics. Can often paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary in unusual or unexpected circumstances.

The key words here are common, concrete and work related topics.  You will need to know both general and aviation related vocabulary which could include everything from basic things like parts of an aircraft and weather conditions to health and physiology.  You should also have sufficient ability to paraphrase (eg explain using different words) in non-routine situations. Fluency

Produces stretches of language at an appropriate tempo. There may be occasional loss of fluency on transition from rehearsed or formulaic speech to spontaneous interaction, but this does not prevent effective communication. Can make limited use of discourse markers or connectors. Fillers are not distracting.

Fluency is your ability to express yourself clearly without pausing too much.  You should also be able to use appropriate conjunctions.  It is acceptable to pause when changing from routine speech eg phraseology to spontaneous (instinctive) speech in interactions.  You shouldn't "um" and "ah" too much when thinking about what to say. Comprehension

Comprehension is mostly accurate on common, concrete, and work- related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. When the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events, comprehension may be slower or require clarification strategies.

Comprehension of different accents or variety of speech is a very important skill and needs to be "mostly accurate" on common, concrete and work-related topics.  It is expected that your understanding will be slower in non-routine situations. Comprehension refers to listening comprehension rather than reading. Interactions

Responses are usually immediate, appropriate, and informative. Initiates and maintains exchanges even when dealing with an unexpected turn of events. Deals adequately with apparent misunderstandings by checking, confirming, or clarifying.

Another valuable skill is the ability to be able to ask questions to check that information is correct.  The responses should be appropriate and give the relevant information.  The speed of response should usually be immediate, even in non-routine situations. How does an ICAO level relate to other tests like IELTS, TOEFL or TOEIC? Good question.  If you you have an A grade in an English exam you'd probably be surprised if you failed an ICAO English test.  But that's exactly what happens to many applicants, who have all the skills 'on paper' but have great difficulty in communicating effectively in English - particularly in speaking and listening. Many school systems puts too much emphasis on performance in exams, and not enough on actual functional ability - so most English courses and language centres will not give you sufficient preparation for the ICAO English test. We've seen people with IELTS band 8 scores get ICAO level 3 scores in an ICAO assessment.  It's very difficult to compare other tests to ICAO.  Unlike other tests, ICAO scores are based on the lowest level that you achieve.  You could get a score of 5 for Pronunciation, Structure, Vocabulary, Comprehension and Interactions but if you only score 3 for Fluency then ICAO Level 3 is your final grade. The best way to pass an ICAO English test The ICAO Aviation English Online course is different because it focuses exactly on the skills that you need to perform well in the ICAO test.  But you won't just train to pass the test, you'll be able to function in an aviation environment with greater safety and knowledge.  As you improve your English, you can also learn about aviation and improve your technical knowledge. Each level contains 12 units of between 8 and 12 hours each that will give you intensive practice of the skills you need to pass the ICAO test.  ICAO Aviation English Online is industry grade courseware that has been used by major airlines.  We recommend this course to anyone who is a non-native English speaker starting a course of aviation training. What should I do now? Just visit ICAO Aviation English Online and make payment for the Aviation English Placement Test. You will receive an accurate level assessment and a recommendation for the best course to begin studying. Aviation English Asia Ltd http://www.aviationenglish.com

How many is too many when making errors? A guide to accuracy in Aviation English.

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English learning advice from Aviation English Asia. Article written by Michael McBride

In this article I am going to focus on accuracy and making errors in Aviation English communication.  As ICAO state, “errors may occur” at ICAO Level 4.  This article will examine what kind of errors you can reasonably make and what you need to do to be as accurate as possible.   To be accurate is also to be realistic, you cannot expect to be correct in what you say all of the time, so what ‘errors’ are important and what aren’t to be ICAO operational?

What is an error and what is a mistake?

The basic difference is that an “error” is something you do not know the answer to, maybe through a lack of knowledge or skills.  A “mistake” is when you forget the answer to something you previously knew. So we must look further into the first term – error.  This is where problems can arise and what you need to target in getting your message across even without being 100% accurate and using other words and communication strategies.  Let’s look at the term in more detail by separating it into the following: -

  • Global error – something is said incorrectly and it affects the meaning entirely
  • Local error – some parts of what is said is wrong but overall it doesn’t change the meaning, it is understood to a good extent.

As you probably would guess ICAO will tolerate local errors more, as they state the candidate “rarely makes global errors…and some local errors.”  In other words you must avoid making global errors as much as possible and understand that local errors could still guarantee ICAO level 4 as long as it is not frequent.  Which do you think is local and global from the following: - #1 “My job is check first the aircraft status.” #2 “My jos is first the aircraft status.” #1 is not grammatically correct, but the meaning is clear = local #2 could be interpreted correctly but it is unclear and when in a pilot-controller situation (as one example) is there enough time to try to understand what is spoken? It totally interferes with the interaction = global

Advice and information on how to reduce errors

Do you think mis-communicating “he speak” rather than “he speaks” on the radio will be seen as a major problem in the eyes of ICAO requirements?  Is it really crucial to meaning?  Well, the simple answer is that it is a local error and if all you need is Level 4 it is not a serious issue, it depends how far you want to go, ICAO level wise. I must stress that ICAO is more interested in appropriacy and intelligibility than correctness all the time, which means not everything has to be correct but it must be understood overall. As I have mentioned in previous articles, you need to practice communication strategies to reduce errors and increase accuracy which can be helped by practising the following: -

  • Synonyms – use words of similar/same meaning if you forget your first thought
  • Word families – practice the different forms of words eg. extend, extension, extended, which one is used when?
  • ‘Invent’ new words rather than struggling to remember the correct word for something e.g. “animal container” instead of “cage”

Furthermore you must always be able to check and clarify certain uncertain interactions, which ICAO state as “using clarification strategies” when communication problems arise.  Do not give up, you might not be accurate with a message first time around, so adopt the 3 Cs rule.  Clarify, Check and Confirm.  Which “C” do you think applies to the following: -

  • “Is the altimeter 1014”?
  • “Affirm”
  • “What is the altimeter setting?”

The 3Cs provide a way to make less mistakes in interactions and carrying out a full procedure in the air or on the ground. Answers – Check, confirm, clarify An error is only an error if it is not understandable to the vast majority of speakers/listeners.  You must focus on working on the core sounds of words to become more accurate in terms of pronunciation (previous article) and the above strategies in terms of vocabulary and understanding. In conclusion, remember that your training time might be limited with due to your schedule, so do not worry too much about local errors like missing out the/a/an and “s” in 3rd person verbs, your instructor will probably not focus too much on correcting this.  Of course this depends on what level you need and your current English ability.

Next steps

Enrol in a course at Aviation English Asia.  Practice and interact in English with colleagues, Aviation personnel and friends using Aviation related topics, such as discussions and even arguments.  Your Aviation English course will be communicative, which means that you must talk, make mistakes and not give up to gain fully from the course.  After all, the ICAO recommended testing system is communicative, which I will focus on in the coming weeks.

Test

Re-write the following sentences, which ones do you think would be acceptable for ICAO Level 4?

  • Avion Air 734, has things in the air flying around, need you
  • Something in the cabin, possibly fighting
  • It seem to coming out of cargo hold
  • He have problem with baby out now

Checklist

  • Some local errors are acceptable, meaning and intelligibility is more important than full and complete accuracy.
  • Communication and clarification strategies should be practiced
  • It is good to make mistakes in your training, keep at it, and don’t give up.  Continually focus on communication of Aviation related topics in and out of the classroom.  Errors and mistakes should reduce the more you practice and communicate (speaking and listening).

What to do next

For more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com. If you haven’t already please join the Aviation English mailing list for special offers and details of courses in your area.

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All courses are available in Hong Kong. Check the schedule above for details.

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