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Vincent Leung
2015-12-13, 14:26
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2015-12-13, 14:33
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Cathay Pacific Airways
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Aviation Vocabulary - Guess the aircraft 1

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How well can you describe aircraft? Here is a quick question to test your aviation vocabulary.

Which famous aircraft may be classified as:

a conventional low wing cantilever monoplane with straight elliptical wings of moderate aspect ratio and slight dihedral

We will reveal the answer later on our Facebook page.

For more interesting articles to help you improve your Aviation English please visit http://aviationenglish.com and LIKE our Facebook Page

Paraphrasing for pilots and ATCs

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English learning advice from Aviation English Asia. Article written by Michael Egerton In this article I'm going to show you how you can improve your ability to paraphrase.  Paraphrasing is the ability to express someone else's ideas in your own words.  It is an essential skill for pilots and controllers, as there may be times when you need to communicate with other non-native speakers who don't know (or can't recognise) the words that you are trying to use. Therefore you should improve not just your own vocabulary, but learn how to communicate information clearly using other words and structures.  It's an effective way of checking, confirming and clarifying information.  Communication strategies like this will contribute to making aviation safer. [caption id="attachment_144" align="alignleft" width="150" caption="Paraphrasing for pilots and controllers"]aviation english paraphrasing[/caption] Paraphrasing requires several skills:

  • Good listening comprehension
  • the ability to understand the main points of a message
  • the ability to understand  why the speaker/writer expressed himself this way
  • the ability to express the same ideas in more concise terms without changing the meaning

This means that you need to develop the ability to use the context to understand the new vocabulary that you hear, while ignoring the parts that are not relevant to the main points. Pay attention to key words/phrases, tense and factual information. You can practice paraphrasing/summarising by picking out the key words/phrases in the text and expressing the way they are related to each other.

Practice paraphrasing while reading

In aviation you will probably be more concerned with improving your listening rather than reading, but nevertheless you can improve your paraphrasing skills by reading a varied range of text. When you read an article first skim read it to understand what the article is about and what the writer is trying to say.  You should be able to guess the meaning of words that you don't know from the context.  Then consider:

  • What are the main points?
  • What is the key information?
  • What information is not useful?
  • What questions does the article answer or raise?

You can then change the structure of the article to be clearer and easier to understand.  If there are uncommon words you can describe them using different words.  If the word represents something physical, eg a foreign object left on the runway, you can consider it's shape, size and dimensions or even the material it is made of.  If the word represents something abstract eg "aerodynamics", consider the situations in which the idea occurs. Exercise:

Paraphrase the following passage:

As mankind advanced further and further, throughout history there were lots of trials and designs for flying machines.    In order to establish flying, mankind looked at the only available example of flying: namely birds.  Thus, everyone was trying to copy the designs of the birds to design a flying machine that paralleled their development: The Ornithopter.  In essence, an ornithopter was a machine that had birdlike wings and a place for the operator to be attached.  The operator would flap his arms and the wings of the ornithopter would be flapped also.  In essence, mankind would fly by simulating the flapping of the bird's wings.  However, since the principles of aerodynamics were not yet discovered, no one was aware of the ratio of the wing to muscle power and thus all of these projects and attempts were doomed to fail. It should be easy to state the important information within a few sentences.  It's easy to see which information can be discarded. Exercise:

  • Explain what an ornihopter is without using the word "birds".
  • Explain why ornihopters were not successful without using the words "aerodynamics", "flapping" or "power".

Practice paraphrasing in aviation

Watch the following video. [youtube=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3yPm_guBFM&feature=PlayList&p=B3CBCB57DE10D280&playnext_from=PL&playnext=1&index=23]

  • Do you think that the controllers were surprised to hear of that object on the taxiway?
  • How do you think it got there?
  • What other words sound similar or could easily be misheard?
  • How would you describe that object if you weren't able to communicate clearly on the radio due to interference?

What to do next

For feedback and more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com. If you haven’t already please join the Aviation English mailing list for special offers and details of courses in your area.

Aviation Vocabulary - Microwave Approach

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Word of the Week from Aviation English Asia.


Microwave Approach


Definition: An approach executed by an aircraft, utilising a Microwave Landing System (MLS) for guidance.


微波著陸 – 中文(繁體)


定義:一架飛機執行的辦法,利用一個微波著陸系統(MLS)的指導


微波着陆 – 中文(简体)


定义:一架飞机执行的办法,利用一个微波着陆系统(MLS)的指导


For more advice about learning Aviation English please visit


http://aviationenglish.com or visit our Facebook Page



Filed under: Word of the Week Tagged: Aviation English, 航空英語, 航空英语, 詞彙, 词汇,Microwave Approach, vocabulary, 微波着陆, 微波著陸

Vocabulary for describing fixed wing aircraft

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English learning advice from Aviation English Asia. Article written by Michael Egerton In a previous article, Describing pictures in ICAO Aviation English tests we learned some techniques to describe pictures.  One of the lexical sets we said was necessary was vocabulary to describe an aircraft.  In this article we will focus on how to describe the physical structure of a fixed wing aircraft, and also cover some grammatical structures you can use to relate the information.  Of course many pilots will already be familiar with these words but it is worth ensuring that you can use the words with correct grammar, eg prepositions. Most aircraft have the following major components.

  • fuselage
  • wings
  • empennage
  • landing gear
  • power plant

Describing the fuselage and substructure

The fuselage is the central structure of an aircraft and includes the cabin, cockpit and area for storing cargo.  When describing the fuselage also consider the materials it is made of, and how it is constructed.  You should also know the following vocabulary:

truss, longeron, members, tubing, cross-brace, monococque, aluminium, skin, formers, bulkheads, airframe

Structure: You can also use the following verbs to describe the fuselage.  Be aware of the form of the verb eg feature / features, and also if there are any necessary prepositions that go with the verb.

  • The truss-type fuselage is constructed of steel or aluminum tubing.
  • The Warren truss features longerons, as well as diagonal and vertical web members
  • Small airplanes generally utilize aluminum alloy tubing
  • A monocoque design uses stressed skin to support almost all imposed loads
  • The monocoque construction mainly consists of the skin, formers, and bulkheads.
  • The substructure reinforces the stressed skin by taking some of the bending stress from the fuselage.
  • On single-engine aircraft, the engine is usually attached to the front of the fuselage
  • A firewall is made of heat-resistant material such as stainless steel.

Describing the wings

 

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="300" caption="The main spar of a de Havilland DH60 Moth"]Describing a wing in English[/caption] Wings are attached at either the top, middle, or lower part of the fuselage and are referred to as high-wing, mid-wing or low-wing.  You should know the following vocabulary:

bi-plane, mono-plane, external braces / wing struts, cantilever, semi-cantilever, spar, ribs, aileron, stringers, ailerons, wing flaps, trusses, I-beams, leading edge, trailing edge, fuel tanks, faring, airfoil/aerofoil, flush, port, starboard, inboard, outboard

Structure: In addition to being able to identify the above parts of an aircraft, you should be able to describe it's function.  You can use the following structures:

  • wing struts transmit the flight and landing loads through the struts to the main fuselage structure
  • wing ribs determine the shape and thickness of the wing
  • ailerons create aerodynamic forces that cause the aircraft to roll
  • flaps are used to increase the lifting force of the wing for takeoff and landing
  • The flaps are normally flush with the wing´s surface during cruising flight

Describing the tail-section (empennage)

The empennage includes the entire tail section, consisting of the vertical and horizontal stabiliser. Basic vocabulary to describe the tail section includes:

rudder, elevator, stabilator, trim tabs, antiservo , tail fin, inclining, forward swept/sweeping, livery, vertical, horizontal, leading edge, trailing edge,

Exercise: Describe the following picture using 5 of the words above.

 

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="336" caption="Describe the tail section of this aircraft"]Credit: Wikipedia[/caption]

Describing the landing gear

Aircraft can have different types of landing gear eg wheels, skis or floats depending on whether the aircraft is used on land, water or snow.  When describing landing gear consider what that particular type of landing gear is designed for.  Essential vocabulary includes:

nose wheel, tail wheel, tyres, tricycle, floats, skis, undercarriage, fixed gear, retractable, extending, wheel well, shock absorbers, pontoons, skid, conventional "taildragger", tail strike, skid, tail bumper, spats, axle, wheel assembly, tracks, pivoting, steering,

Exercise: Describe the following pictures using 5 of the words listed above.

 

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="242" caption="How would you describe the landing gear on this aircraft? "]How would you describe the landing gear on this aircraft? [/caption] [caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="472" caption="What stage of flight is this Airbus A330 in? How can you tell?"]Describing landing gear on an aircraft[/caption]

Advice for describing aircraft in ICAO English tests

There is a lot of vocabulary listed in this article, some of which you may already be familiar with - but learning English is not just a matter of remembering vocabulary.  In order to communicate effectively in English you must be able to use vocabulary with reasonably accurate grammar.  Try to create sentences using the structures presented above, or compare pictures of different types of aircraft.  There are a lot of interesting pictures on websites such as airliners.net that you can practice describing. What to do next For feedback and more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com.  We can help you improve your English whether you are an experienced pilot, a cadet entry pilot, a controller, aerospace engineer or flight attendant, with custom courses designed specifically for your needs.  If you haven’t already please join the Aviation English mailing list for instant access to free demonstration units of the ICAO Aviation English Online course, special offers and details of courses in your area. Of course, feel free to leave a comment or even a suggestion for a future article.  We value all of your feedback. Bookmark & Share

Aviation Vocabulary - Aerodrome Traffic

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Word of the Week from Aviation English Asia.


Aerodrome Traffic


Definition: All traffic on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome and all aircraft operating in the vicinity of an aerodrome.


機場交通 – 中文(繁體)


定義:所有車輛在操作區的一個機場,所有飛機在附近的一個機場


机场交通 – 中文(简体)


定义:所有车辆在操作区的一个机场,所有飞机在附近的一个机场


For more advice about learning Aviation English please visit


http://aviationenglish.com or visit our Facebook Page



Filed under: Word of the Week Tagged: Aerodrome Traffic, Aviation English, 航空英語, 航空英语, 詞彙, 词汇, vocabulary, 机场交通, 機場交通

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